One element of level design commonly overlooked, even though it can make or break a map, is spawning. Quality: Unacceptable Spawn (being seen during or shortly after spawn) This is self explanatory. Poor Spawn (the player isn’t seen spawning, but they are forced into an engagement) Too often creators only consider whether a player is seen during a spawn. The decision a player makes immediately after spawning should be as impactful as every other decision during the match. If the spawn provides the player with options that have the same outcome or no options off spawn, then that is a poor spawn. Ideal Spawn (not being seen spawning, and offering the player enough choices from spawn that it isn’t exploitable by the other team) Spawning should be seamless for gameplay, as if it never happened. A player should not be thrown into an unsafe situation just because they lost the last engagement. Influence: The first thing you have to take into account when placing a spawn is what influences the game uses to determine which spawn is optimal. A process of elimination based on various factors during the heat of a match. Enemy location, or danger - The spawn system will generally try to spawn a player furthest away from the enemy or anything it deems dangerous on the map. Because of this, the spawn system heavily prioritizes the perimeter spawns. No matter where the danger is, some location on the perimeter will always be the furthest away. There is a feature that allows us to turn off danger influence, but by default it is on. Enemy line of sight - If the respawn being considered is within view of an enemy player, the system will choose not to use it. There is a feature that allows us to turn off line of sight influence, but by default it is on. Teammate location - The spawn system will generally try to respawn a player closest to their teammate, while taking into account other influences. Balance: The more spawns you use, the harder it is to predict which spawn will be chosen. Inversely, less spawns will make the process more predictable. However, this does’t mean that more spawns is better. The specific spawn point will be more difficult to predict, but predicting the general location a player spawns on the map will be just as likely. Spamming spawns everywhere doesn’t necessarily mean your map will provide ideal spawning. Relying on the game to always choose the ideal spawn point will result in disappointment. The more players there are on a map, the more complex the process of elimination becomes to determine a spawn, because there will most likely be players from each team scattered around in different locations on the map. So, less players makes for a more consistent and predictable spawn process. The more predictable spawns become, the higher chance they can be exploited by the team waiting for the other team to respawn. Complementary design: Spawns shouldn’t be an afterthought. The creator should always keep these influences in mind when designing and refining the layout. The ideal spawn system is one that is predictable, yet impossible to exploit. This will largely be based on the layout of the map. Contrasting design: If you do have a layout that isn’t complemented by the default process, we fortunately have the ability to change the process of elimination. Keep in mind, the influences are the same, its just the spawn point itself that becomes lower priority when you raise its spawn order. So, if spawns 1-5 have a spawn order of 0 and spawns 6-10 have a spawn weight of 1, 1-5 will all have to be considered unsafe spawns, based on the influences, before considering using the 6-10 spawns. An example of using spawn order manipulation effectively is if the center of the map is more suited to provide ideal spawning. Since the spawn system prioritizes the perimeter by default, it would be wise to force the system to check all potential central spawns, before choosing to spawn a player on the perimeter. Teleporters: Be careful of teleporter use. The spawn system has no way of knowing a player is about to use a teleporter. The faster a player travels, the more likely the system will choose a less than ideal spawn, so long horizontal teleporter lines should be approached with that consequence in mind. I hope this information allows us to bring our maps to their potential. Thank you for reading.